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Epidemiology of maxillofacial injury among adults in sub-Saharan Africa: a scoping review

Source Injury Epidemiology
Authors A. AdelekeM.N. HlongwaS. MakhungaT.G. Ginindza
OUTPUT TYPE: Journal Article
Print HSRC Library: shelf number 9814118
handle 20.500.11910/22728
Injuries remain one of the leading causes of death globally. These disproportionately affect young adults and are particularly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Maxillofacial injuries (MI) pose significant challenges to public health systems. However, much remains unknown regarding the epidemiology and extent of the financial burden in resource-limited areas, such as SSA, further necessitating more research and support. This scoping review aims to investigate the mechanism, distribution, and financial impact of MI in adults aged 18 years in SSA. The scoping review was guided by the methodological frameworks of Arksey and O'Malley and Levac. An electronic literature search for English-published articles on maxillofacial injuries in adults 18 years was conducted in Scopus, Medline, PubMed, Science Direct, CINAHL, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, and grey literature. The PRISMA chart was used to document database searches and screening outcomes while reporting was guided by PRISMA-ScR. The data extraction process revolved around the predefined study outcomes, which encompassed the study characteristics and epidemiological parameters. The review used a narrative approach to report findings and evaluate publication quality using the STROBE checklist. The database search yielded 8246 studies, of which 30 met the inclusion criteria. A total of 7317 participants were included, 79.3% of whom were males. The peak age range for incidence was between 18 and 40 years. Road traffic collision (RTC) was the leading cause of MI, 59% of which resulted from motorcycle collisions. Assault/interpersonal violence ranked as the second leading cause of MI. The mandible was MI's most frequently affected hard tissue, followed by the midface. Factors such as alcohol/illicit drug use, poor knowledge of traffic regulations, and non-observance of these regulations were associated with MI. In our study, the cost range for mandibular fractures was $200-$468.6, borne by victims and their families. Maxillofacial injuries are predominantly caused by road traffic collisions and assaults in SSA. The findings can provide valuable insights into policy decisions and prevention strategies aimed at reducing injury burden. Further research is warranted to explore the psychological impact of MI, including PTSD, for tailored support and intervention.